Bailey bridge design calculation

Posted on 07.01.2021 Comments

The Bailey bridge was described by General Eisenhower as one of the three most important engineering and technological achievements of WWII, along with radar and the heavy bomber. Bailey bridging made an immense contribution towards ending World War II. As far as my own operations were concerned, with the Eighth Army in Italy and with the 21 Army Group in Northwest Europe, I could never have maintained the speed and tempo of forward movement without large supplies of Bailey bridging.

Without the Bailey Bridge, we should not have won the war. It was the best thing in that line that we ever had. There is no doubt that the Bailey bridge was a world beating design but it would be unfair to characterise it as the work of some lone genius. Sir Donald Bailey was inspirational, the driving force behind the design but he headed a team and many of the features that were found in the Bailey bridge were refinements or development of previous designs.

Although I have covered bridging operations that used the Bailey bridge in previous posts the image below provides a good example of just how many were constructed in North West Europe alone, Italy, Africa and the Far East also made extensive use of the Bailey. I was always fascinated by the mastery of water. Water is a damnably difficult thing to tamper with. Donald Bailey was born in Rotherham on 18th September His first job was with Rowntree in York, followed by work in the old L.

Railway and then in Sheffield City Engineering Department. In Bailey was awarded the O. Inhe was made a Commander of the Order of Orange Nassau in recognition of the part Bailey bridges played in the reconstruction of Holland. After four successful years in this post, he suffered his first stroke and retired.

He returned to the Christchurch area in where he lived with his wife, Phyllis, until his death on 4 September in Bournemouth. No TD post on the subject would be complete without a British Pathe clip, click here to view. In the early stages of the war and just before it was realised that the existing British tanks were simply too poorly armoured. The first production models were produced in and weighed 39 tons.

The need for a Class 40 bridge had been foreseen for some time and the Inglis Mark III see the earlier post was the first contender but even though it eventually came into service it was not really suitable. That alternative was the Bailey Bridge, a design that Donald Bailey had been working on since late although it is reported that the EBE instructed him to do this on his own time and outside of the EBE offices!More information on our services.

The Bridge manual sets out the criteria for the design and evaluation of bridges, culverts, stock underpasses and subways and the design of earthworks and retaining structures. Use of the manual on other highways, including private highways, may be considered appropriate with the agreement of the relevant road controlling authority, client or landowner. Guidelines for best practice bridge inspection and maintenance. It includes techniques, procedures and current technology. Not currently available for download.

Copies available from bridgemanual nzta.

bailey bridge design calculation

This manual sets out the requirements for the provision, inspection, maintenance, testing and storage of Bailey bridging on behalf of the NZ Transport Agency. This manual shall be read in conjunction with the Bailey bridge and Uniflote handbook, which provides detailed information on Bailey bridging.

This manual sets out the required screening procedure to be used for the initial stage, which identifies and ranks those bridges that are considered by the screening consultant to justify subsequent detailed assessment of their earthquake resistance. Specification and guidance notes for pipe culverts including the construction of trenches, supply and placement of bedding, supply and laying of pipes, jointing of the pipes, construction of headwalls, wing-walls, aprons, drops, and intakes and outlet structures, the construction of connecting and outlet drains, as well as backfill of trenches and reinstatement.

Consideration should be given in specifying in the specific contract documents the pipe installation in accordance with a relevant standard that will result in improved methods for construction, for example, NZS This policy document sets out the requirements for the inspection of bridges, geotechnical structures and other significant structures on the state highway network including the structural aspects of tunnels.

The Austroads Guide to bridge technology provides bridge owners and agencies with advice on bridge ownership, design procurement, vehicle and pedestrian accessibility and bridge maintenance and management practices.

The purpose of this guideline is to provide all users of the bridge data system BDS details of how to operate the application. It also defines the role each party plays in ensuring the database is kept up to date. It also contains other relevant MWD Civil Division circulars and additional information that may still be useful for bridge rating and posting calculations. Note: This document is in imperial units and does not necessarily reflect current policy or practice, and no attempt has been made to update it to current practice.

This document provides a summary of information to assist the bridge designer with the specification of a cost effective performance based corrosion protection system, taking into account future maintenance requirements, by using the net present value life cycle costing model. Guidance is also provided for the maintenance painting of existing steel bridges.

This memo provides requirements for the provision of services on existing state highway structures. These requirements are intended to assist utility operators to prepare suitable documentation for review by the NZ Transport Agency. The purpose of this information pack is to ensure that road controlling authorities are aware of the actions required by them to implement the changes to the VDAM Rule and the support available to them to do this.

This includes background, key contacts, bridge assessment guides and details of the specialist vehicle permitting process. This report presents a summary of the outcomes of a follow-on project to a research project commissioned by the NZ Transport Agency that culminated in the publication of research report The development of design guidance for bridges in New Zealand for liquefaction and lateral spreading effects.

This project has involved summarising the pseudo-static approach developed in the research project for the analysis of bridge foundations on sites prone to liquefaction and presents two examples of the evaluation of the liquefaction hazard and two examples of the analysis of piled bridges on sites prone to liquefaction. This report is intended for engineers who are familiar with geotechnical and structural design practice for static and seismic loading of bridges.

This Technical advice note outlines a proposed amendment to Bridge Manual clause 4. The purpose of this Technical advice note is to define a consistent mandatory approach for the verification of steel materials on NZ Transport Agency projects. This is an interim measure until a full specification has been developed. This guide describes the processes to be used on NZ Transport Agency projects for assessing historic heritage effects and to determine appropriate mitigations.

For further information contact bridgemanual nzta. New Zealand Government.

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Menu Menu. Bailey bridge manual SM Not currently available for download.A Bailey bridge is a type of portable, pre-fabricatedtruss bridge. It was developed in by the British for military use during the Second World War and saw extensive use by British, Canadian and US military engineering units. A Bailey bridge has the advantages of requiring no special tools or heavy equipment to assemble.

The wood and steel bridge elements were small and light enough to be carried in trucks and lifted into place by hand, without the use of a crane.

The bridges were strong enough to carry tanks. Bailey bridges continue to be used extensively in civil engineering construction projects and to provide temporary crossings for pedestrian and vehicle traffic. The success of the Bailey bridge was due to the simplicity of the fabrication and assembly of its modular components, combined with the ability to erect and deploy sections with a minimum of assistance from heavy equipment.

Many previous designs for military bridges required cranes to lift the pre-assembled bridge and lower it into place. The Bailey parts were made of standard steel alloysand were simple enough that parts made at a number of different factories were interchangeable. The modular design allowed engineers to build each bridge to be as long and as strong as needed, doubling or tripling the supportive side panels, or on the roadbed sections.

The Bailey Bridge

The basic bridge consists of three main parts. The bridge's strength is provided by the panels on the sides. The panels are foot-long 3. The panel was constructed of welded steel. The top and bottom chord of each panel had interlocking male and female lugs into which engineers could inset panel connecting pins. The floor of the bridge consists of a number of foot-wide 5. Stringers are placed atop the completed structural frame, and wood planking is placed atop the stringers to provide a roadbed.

Ribands bolt the planking to the stringers. Later in the war, the wooden planking was covered by steel plates, which were more resistant to damage of tank tracks. Each unit constructed in this fashion creates a single foot-long 3.

After one section is complete it is typically pushed forward over rollers on the bridgehead, and another section built behind it.

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The two are then connected together with pins pounded into holes in the corners of the panels. For added strength up to three panels and transoms can be bolted on either side of the bridge. Another solution is to stack the panels vertically. Footways can be installed on the outside of the side-panels. The side-panels form an effective barrier between foot and vehicle traffic, allowing pedestrians to safely use the bridge.

A useful feature of the Bailey bridge is its ability to be launched from one side of a gap. The bridge is placed on rollers and simply pushed across the gap, using manpower or a truck or tracked vehicle, at which point the roller is removed with the help of jacks and the ribands and roadbed installed, along with any additional panels and transoms that might be needed.

During WWII, Bailey bridge parts were made by companies with little experience of this kind of engineering.The design methods presented throughout the example are meant to be the most widely used in general bridge engineering practice. The first design step is to identify the appropriate design criteria. This includes, but is not limited to, defining material properties, identifying relevant superstructure information, determining the required pier height, and determining the bottom of footing elevation.

Refer to Design Step 1 for introductory information about this design example. Additional information is presented about the design assumptions, methodology, and criteria for the entire bridge, including the pier. Concrete day compressive strength - For all components of this pier design example, 4.

However, per the Specifications, 2. Pier cap and column cover - Since no joint exists in the deck at the pier, a 2-inch cover could be used with the assumption that the pier is not subject to deicing salts.

However, it is assumed here that the pier can be subjected to a deicing salt spray from nearby vehicles. Therefore, the cover is set at 2.

Footing bottom cover - Since the footing bottom is cast directly against the earth, the footing bottom cover is set at 3.

Bailey Bridge

Superstructure data - The above superstructure data is important because it sets the width of the pier cap and defines the depth and length of the superstructure needed for computation of wind loads. It will be assumed here that adequate vertical clearance is provided given a ground line that is two feet above the top of the footing and the pier dimensions given in Design Step 8. However, as a minimum, it should be at or below the frost depth for a given geographic region.

In this example, it is assumed that the two feet of soil above the footing plus the footing thickness provides sufficient depth below the ground line for frost protection of the structure. Selecting the most optimal pier type depends on site conditions, cost considerations, superstructure geometry, and aesthetics. The most common pier types are single column i. For this design example, a single column hammerhead pier was chosen. A typical hammerhead pier is shown in Figure Since the Specifications do not have standards regarding maximum or minimum dimensions for a pier cap, column, or footing, the designer should base the preliminary pier dimensions on state specific standards, previous designs, and past experience.

The pier cap, however, must be wide enough to accommodate the bearing. Once the preliminary pier dimensions are selected, the corresponding dead loads can be computed. The pier dead loads must then be combined with the superstructure dead loads. Based on the properties defined in Design Step 3 Steel Girder Designany number of commercially available software programs can be used to obtain these loads.The Bailey Bridge is essentially a pre-fabricated structure, the roadway being carried between two main girders.

A main girder is formed from panels trusses 10 ft long pinned together end to end. The strength of the girder can be increased by adding extra panels alongside and on top of the original panels.

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The different arrangements of panels are known as trusses and storeys. A girder made up of three alongside each other and none on top, is known as Triple Truss Single Storey TS while a girder of two panels alongside each other and one set of two on top is known as Double Truss Double Storey DDand so on.

In all cases the number of trusses is given first followed by the number of storeys. The girders are connected crossways by transoms. These are 18 ft long rolled steel joists which rest on the bottom of the panels and carry the roadway superstructure. They are fixed to the panel by clamps and hold the trusses in position 12 ft.

For a Double Truss bridge, the second truss is placed 18 ins. Across the transoms run the roadbearers stringerswhich are 10 ft. Wooden chesses are placed across the stringers to form the deck. Footwalks for pedestrian traffice can be fitted outside the main girders of the bridge and secured to the end of the transoms. The load carrying capacity of the Bailey Bridge is shown in the following table: Load Class 9 12 18 24 30 40 50 60 70 Span in Feet TS DD 90 80 70 Up to and including Class 40 loads, two transoms are required per bay of the bridge.

Over Class 40, four transoms are required per bay. As a guide to the load capacity required:An armoured division needed a Class 30 bridge; an infantry division needed a Class 40 bridge; a corps needed a Class 70 bridge. Most bridges appear to have been painted a dark earth colour, but some may have been British Olive Drab. Roadways natural wood or possibly creosoted. Recommended reading:Bailey Uniflote Handbook, ed.The following description of the Bailey bridge and an alternative method of launching the Bailey bridge is taken from Tactical and Technical TrendsNo.

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War Department publication Tactical and Technical Trends. As with all wartime intelligence information, data may be incomplete or inaccurate. No attempt has been made to update or correct the text. Any views or opinions expressed do not necessarily represent those of the website.

The British "Bailey bridge" is a knock-down steel bridge, which can be transported in a truck train and erected where needed.

With the change of some bolt-head sizes only, it has been adopted by the U. The bridge is a "through" type with the roadway carried between the main girders. These girders are formed of panels pinned together to make foot bays. The strength of the girder of foot span can be increased from 20 tons up to better than 80 tons by making it a double-truss, double-story type. The pulling is done by means of suitable cables made fast on the opposite side of the stream.

If necessary, of course, the free end of the bridge can be floated, derricked, or cantilevered out across the gap.

The following account from British sources of a method of launching a bridge without the use of the nose extension is of practical value to engineers.

In preparing to launch by this method careful attention to the height of the rollers must be given as there is no nose into which a link can be placed. Launching should be done on a level plane, allowance being made in the calculation for the sag of the bridge and for the base of the end posts projecting 6 inches below the bottom chord as well as for any difference in bank height. A normal layout of stores with stringers placed further back from the rocking rollers than is usual, is satisfactory.

In construction, a normal double-story bridge, less decking, is built to the requisite length. A Single-story skeleton tail is added, the bridge being kept as near the point of balance as possible by frequent booming out. On completion, four men are sent to the far bank to position the bearing under the end posts; remainder of the party launch the bridge, pushing downward and outward.

When the bridge has reached the far bank, and the head has been lowered to rest on the base plates, two jacks are placed on the end of the tail and two jacks one bay back from the bridge. Jacking proceeds until the panel pins connecting all but the last bay of the tail can be driven out with a sledge hammer. The tail is jacked down on to the plain rollers and pushed back out of the way.

The bridge is now jacked up on the near bank, the rollers are removed and the base plates are positioned. Packing is placed under the remaining bay of the tail. By jacking down on to the packing, the remainder of the tail can be removed. End posts are fitted and the jacking down is completed. Decking can be fitted and the far ramps placed while the jacking is in hand.

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The advantages gained from this method of construction are: 1 A shorter span of bridge than would normally be necessary, can frequently be used. Note An American official source suggests that the losses of small tools, which are difficult to replace, will be considerably reduced if bridge erectors, when working over water, will carry them slung around their necks with string.

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The hide-faced hammers may be adapted for stringing by drilling a hole, or cutting a groove in the handle, near the hand end. Web LoneSentry.Design the fixed and free end cantilever abutments to the 20m span deck shown to carry HA and 45 units of HB loading. Analyse the abutments using a unit strip method. The bridge site is located south east of Oxford to establish the range of shade air temperatures.

The ground investigation report shows suitable founding strata about 9. The proposed deck consists of 11No. Y4 prestressed concrete beams and concrete deck slab as shown. For a Group 4 type structure see fig. From Clause 5. A tolerance is also required for setting the bearing if the ambient temperature is not at the mid range temperature. Let us assume that this maximum shade air temperature of 16 o C for fixing the bearings is specified in the Contract and design the abutments accordingly.

Alternatively using BS Part 9.

bailey bridge design calculation

BS Part 2 - Clause 5. From Table3 of BS Part 9. When this load is applied on the deck it will act on the fixed abutment only. When this load is applied on the deck it will act at bearing shelf level. If sliding bearings are used then friction forces at the free end should be considered as a relieving effect on longitudinal and skidding loads and therefore ignored when designing the fixed bearing.

Surcharge - BS Part 2 Clause 5. Initial Sizing for Base Dimensions There are a number of publications that will give guidance on base sizes for free standing cantilever walls, Reynolds's Reinforced Concrete Designer's Handbook being one such book. Alternatively a simple spreadsheet will achieve a result by trial and error. BD 30 Clause 5.

bailey bridge design calculation

Analysing the fixed abutment with Load Cases 1 to 6 and the free abutment with Load Cases 1 to 5 using a simple spreadsheet the following results were obtained: Fixed Abutment:.

It can be seen that the use of elastomeric bearings Case 2 will govern the critical design load cases on the abutments. We shall assume that there are no specific requirements for using elastomeric bearings and design the abutments for the lesser load effects by using sliding bearings. Serviceability and Ultimate load effects need to be calculated for the load cases 1 to 6 shown above.

Again, these are best carried out using a simple spreadsheet. Analysing the fixed abutment with Load Cases 1 to 6 and the free abutment with Load Cases 1 to 5 using a simple spreadsheet the following results were obtained for the design moments and shear at the base of the wall: Fixed Abutment:.

Check classification to clause 5. Bending BS Part 4 Clause 5.